Monday, August 24, 2020

5 Proofreading Habits You Should Adopt Immediately

5 Proofreading Habits You Should Adopt Immediately In a blog distributed on his site Career Talk Pro, author and expert Brian Hirth records an assortment of a portion of the most exceedingly awful rã ©sumã © mistakes and defective word decision models hes seen. Anyway diverting they may be to peruse all things considered, the activity searchers who presented these words and expressions in their rã ©sumã ©s and introductory letters likely didnt locate the lost open door funny.Here are a couple of the most shocking mistakes:i am a prefectionist and infrequently if at any time overlook details.Proven capacity to find and right erors.Lurnt Word Perfect computor and spreadsheet pogroms.Develop a yearly working cost fudget.In my third year of BA houners English.Received a plague for sales rep of the yearMy job remembered composing for subtleties of records, client contact and illegal tax avoidance duties.Extra Circular ActivitiesAt auxiliary school I was a prefixIn my extra time I appreciate concealing my horseDear Madman (rather than Madam)My hobbits includeRestaurant abilities: Severing customersIm a precise and out of control typistObviously, these mix-ups would have never made it into the last draft if the author had edited accurately, or had another person investigate their rã ©sumã © and introductory letter before submitting it to a potential boss. In cases like these, Im sure it was extremely obvious to the businesses that the candidates didnt need the employments enough to guarantee these mix-ups were adjusted. Such slip-ups look amateurish and thoughtless two characteristics that businesses maintain a strategic distance from in employees.Proofreading your work isn't just shrewd it can represent the deciding moment your odds of finding a new line of work, procuring an advancement, or finishing a degree. Similarly as with any expertise, creating valuable propensities can help guarantee that any substance you submit, both expertly and by and by, leaves the best impression.Developing helpful editing propen sities can assist you with making proficient progress. Photograph by Brooke Lark on Unsplash.Habit #1: Know your tendenciesDo you frequently befuddle your and youre? Or on the other hand possibly you have a propensity for composing run-on sentences? Keep these inclinations on a rundown that is effectively obvious at whatever point you plunk down to compose something.All journalists have propensities toward certain language structure mix-ups and sentence structure mistakes. These are generally rectified the more somebody composes and attempts to consummate its specialty. Nonetheless, particularly in the event that you havent had a ton of experience composing or if youre learning English as a subsequent language-realizing your propensities is a decent method to guarantee satisfactory editing at whatever point you write.As you build up this propensity, remember for your rundown the entirety of the sentence structure, spelling, or linguistic structure blunders you will in general make. After some time, youll start to see themes you can recognize as inclinations in your composition, and work to address them each time you compose. Monitoring the kind of missteps you frequently make is the initial step to improving as an author (and proofreader).Habit #2: Print it outAfter youve composed something, on the off chance that you approach a printer, feel free to print it out. Editing your work subsequent to printing out a printed copy does a few things:It permits you to make revisions legitimately on the paper for a visual comprehension of your blunder inclinations (see propensity #1).It gives your eyes a rest while editing, in the wake of gazing at a screen. As indicated by this article by the American Optometric Association, Computer Vision Syndrome, likewise alluded to as Digital Eye Strain, is a dream related issue that can occur after delayed PC, tablet, tablet and mobile phone use. As indicated by the article, to help ease computerized eye strain, observe the 20-20- 20 guideline; take a 20-second break to see something 20 feet away every 20 minutes.Heres another incredible motivation to print it out:Viewing a PC or advanced screen is not quite the same as perusing a printed page. Frequently the letters on the PC or handheld gadget are not as exact or forcefully characterized, the degree of difference of the letters to the foundation is decreased, and the nearness of glare and reflections on the screen may make seeing difficult.Viewing separations and points utilized for this kind of work are likewise regularly not the same as those generally utilized for other perusing or composing assignments. Subsequently, the eye centering and eye development necessities for computerized screen review can put extra requests on the visual system.American Optometric AssociationHabit #3: Find a second pair of eyesSpeaking of eyes, even the most prepared essayists know to have another person investigate their work before it is distributed. In some cases, you can compose an expression or word so regularly that it appears to be right, despite the fact that it isnt. This is the reason its consistently imperative to make the propensity for finding a second pair of eyes to investigate your writing.Preferably, this other peruser ought to be an expert editorial manager, particularly if your substance is critical for expert or scholarly interests. As an essayist and proofreader, I could never send in an article to a magazine or a question letter to a distribution without first having a kindred editorial manager investigate it for me. There have frequently been little subtleties I missed in the wake of composing a piece that another manager will get upon first reading.Another thing that happens is after you center so eagerly around composing something, your cerebrum will regularly fill in words that arent on the printed page, making you miss the word altogether. This happens in light of the fact that youre overthinking the sentence or passage. Havi ng someone else read over your composing is the most ideal approach to get this sort of mistake.If you cannot stand to employ an expert proofreader, at any rate consider having somebody investigate your composition for you. This could be a companion, relative, cohort, or expert colleague, and could assist you with getting a missed blunder you wouldnt have in any case seen.Find someone else to be a second pair of eyes and catch botches you may have missed. Photograph by Nonsap Visuals on Unsplash.Habit #4: Read out loudReading your work out loud is an incredible editing propensity to receive, especially on the grounds that it causes you hear botches you may some way or another miss when just perusing it in your mind. In the event that a sentence doesnt sound right when perused resoundingly, youll notice it right away. Its perhaps the best propensity you can embrace to guarantee that all that you compose is edited effectively each and every time.According to The Write Practice, perusi ng the words so anyone might hear is an editing strategy that will transform you. Not exclusively does this strategy help with syntax, for example, knowing where accentuation ought to pass by hearing the stops that occur, it likewise encourages you get run-on sentences that keep you separate from breath subsequent to perusing. Perusing out loud likewise causes you discover gaps in your rationale or missing data that should be incorporated, alongside clumsy word arrangement or reiteration. Here and there, its incomprehensible for me to get tedious expressing or words except if I read my composing so anyone might hear first. In the wake of doing as such, the redundancy becomes clear.Habit #5: Give it timeAnother significant propensity to create for editing is to give it time. Ideally, after youve composed something, you should mull over it, which means set it aside to edit the following day. Numerous essayists have learned throughout the years that the best an ideal opportunity to com pose or edit your composing is before anything else after that first mug of espresso (if caffeine is your thing) and after youve had a soothing evenings sleep.If you dont have this much time, at any rate give yourself a couple of hours between composing the substance and editing it. Not exclusively will you have the option to edit better-youll give your mind an opportunity to reset and get ready for the various procedures copyediting requires.Heres the science behind why this is a smart thought. The manner in which the mind capacities while composing (making) is not quite the same as how it functions in the editing procedure. Martin Lotze investigated what the mind resembled while composing. Utilizing a fMRI while his subjects were composing, he previously had 28 essayists duplicate a passage. He at that point had similar subjects compose a short story for three minutes.During the genuine composing action, the occipital flap (answerable for representation) turned out to be progressi vely dynamic, as the authors were seeing the scene happen in their psyches as they composed. During this innovative procedure, the hippocampus and front of the mind got dynamic, as true data and plotline were prepared. Master journalists utilized an extra piece of their cerebrum the caudate core, which is the district of the mind that handles programmed functions.In another investigation, The Science Behind What Writing Does to Your Brain by Erika Rasso, the author investigated inquire about identified with how the creative cycle contrasts from the copyediting or editing process. She notes:Copyediting is an activity including a perplexing system of various psychological procedure to do. The fundamental structure squares of this mind boggling system are consideration and memory†¦ Retrieval from both present moment and long haul memory are required to hold the data the copyeditor is perusing in their mind and to reference information on punctuation, style and different pieces of the manuscript.The Science Behind What Writing Does to Your Brain by Erika RassoAs you can see, requiring some investment between the two procedures (composing and editing) offers your cerebrum the chance to change gears. This is a significant advance to guaranteeing youre ready to edit while your mind is at ideal performance.Developing significant propensities for editing will help spare you from humiliating blunders and any amateurish tactless act. Learn them now and youll find that you make less mistakes the more you practice.

Saturday, August 22, 2020

Protein Energy Malnutrition Essay

* Kwashiorkor (protein hunger overwhelming) * Marasmus (inadequacy in both calorie and protein sustenance) * Marasmic Kwashiorkor (stamped protein lack and checked calorie deficiency signs present, once in a while alluded to as the most extreme type of unhealthiness) Note this may likewise be auxiliary to different conditions, for example, incessant renal disease[3] or malignant growth cachexia[4] in which protein vitality squandering may happen. Protein-vitality lack of healthy sustenance influences kids the most in light of the fact that they have less protein admission. The couple of uncommon cases found in the created world are for the most part found in little kids accordingly offad diets, or obliviousness of the nourishing needs of youngsters, especially in instances of milk allergy.[5] Kwashiorkor (articulated/kwé'ë ÃªÆ'iëˆérké™r/) is an intense type of youth protein-vitality lack of healthy sustenance described by edema, crabbiness, anorexia, ulcerating dermatoses, and an extended liver with greasy invades. The nearness of edema brought about by poor nourishment characterizes kwashiorkor.[1] Kwashiorkor was believed to be brought about by deficient protein utilization yet with adequate calorie admission, recognizing it from marasmus. All the more as of late, micronutrient and cell reinforcement insufficiencies have come to be perceived as contributory. Cases in the created world are rare.[2] Jamaican pediatrician Dr. Cicely D. Williams brought the name into the clinical network in her 1935 Lancet article.[3] The name is gotten from the Ga language of waterfront Ghana, deciphered as â€Å"the disorder the infant gets when the new infant comes†,[4][citation needed] and mirroring the improvement of the condition in a more established kid who has been weaned from the bosom when a more youthful kin comes.[5] Breast milk contains proteins and amino acids imperative to a child’s development. In danger populaces, kwashiorkor may create after a mother weans her youngster from bosom milk, supplanting it with an eating regimen high in sugars, particularly starches, however inadequate in protein. SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS The characterizing indication of kwashiorkor in a malnourished youngster is pedal edema (growing of the feet). Different signs incorporate an extended midsection, a broadened liver with greasy invades, diminishing hair, loss of teeth, skin depigmentation and dermatitis. Kids with kwashiorkor regularly create crabbiness and anorexia.[1] Victims of kwashiorkor neglect to deliver antibodies following inoculation against sicknesses, including diphtheria and typhoid.[6] Generally, the ailment can be treated by adding food vitality and protein to the eating routine; be that as it may, it can have a drawn out effect on a child’s physical and mental turn of events, and in serious cases may prompt passing. In dry atmospheres, marasmus is the more continuous ailment related with ailing health. Another lack of healthy sustenance condition incorporates cachexia, in spite of the fact that it is regularly brought about by hidden sicknesses. These are significant contemplations in the treatm ent of the patients. Potential CAUSES There are different clarifications for the advancement of kwashiorkor and the theme remains controversial.[8] It is presently acknowledged that protein insufficiency, in blend with vitality and micronutrient inadequacy, is important however not adequate to cause kwashiorkor.[citation needed] The condition is likely because of lack of one of a few sorts of supplements (e.g., iron, folic corrosive, iodine, selenium, nutrient C), especially those associated with against oxidant insurance. Significant enemies of oxidants in the body that are diminished in youngsters with kwashiorkor incorporate glutathione, egg whites, nutrient E and polyunsaturated unsaturated fats. In this way, if a kid with diminished kind one supplements or enemies of oxidants is presented to pressure (for example a contamination or poison) he/she is increasingly subject to create kwashiorkor. Numbness of sustenance can be a reason. Dr. Latham, chief of the Program in International Nutrition at Cornell University refered to a situation where guardians who took care of their youngster cassava neglected to perceive hunger due to the edema brought about by the disorder and demanded the kid was all around sustained regardless of the absence of dietary protein.[citation needed] One significant factor in the advancement of kwashiorkor is aflatoxin harming. Aflatoxins are delivered by molds and ingested with mildew covered nourishments. They are toxified by the cytochrome P450 framework in the liver, the subsequent epoxides harm liver DNA. Since numerous serum proteins, specifically egg whites, are delivered in the liver, the side effects of kwashiorkor are effortlessly clarified. It is critical that kwashiorkor happens for the most part in warm, damp atmospheres that empower form development. Protein ought to be provided uniquely for anabolic purposes. The catabolic needs ought to be happy with sugar and fat. Protein catabolism includes the ureacycle, which is situated in the liver and can without much of a stretch overpower the limit of a previously harmed organ. The subsequent liver disappointment can be lethal. In an investigation of twins from Malawi, introduced March 9 at the International Human Microbiome congress in Vancouver, kwashiorkor influenced one twin in half of an examination gathering, yet the two twins just 7% of the time. At the point when gut microscopic organisms from the twins were transplanted into without germ mice, the mice getting microorganisms from influenced twins lost more weight on an ordinary Malawian eating regimen comprising to a great extent of corn flour and water with certain vegetables. It was estimated that transplantation of fecal microscopic organisms may help influenced youngsters MARASMUS Marasmus is a type of serious protein-vitality hunger described by vitality lack. A youngster with marasmus looks anorexic. Body weight might be decreased to under 80% of the normal weight that relates to the tallness .[citation needed] Marasmus event builds before age 1, though kwashiorkor event increments following year and a half. It very well may be recognized from kwashiorkor in that kwashiorkor is protein squandering with the nearness of edema. The anticipation is better than it is for kwashiorkor.[1] The word â€Å"marasmus† originates from the Greek ÃŽ ¼Ã® ±Ã¯ Ã® ±Ã¯Æ'î ¼Ã¯Å"ï‚ marasmos â€Å"consumption† from ÃŽ ¼Ã® ±Ã¯ Ã® ±Ã® ¯Ã® ½Ã® µÃ® ¹Ã® ½ marainein â€Å"to expend, exhaust.† â€â€â€â€â€â€â€â€â€â€â€â€â€â€â€â€- Signs and indications The lack of healthy sustenance related with marasmus prompts broad tissue and muscle squandering, just as factor edema. Other basic attributes incorporate dry skin, free skin folds hanging over the hindquarters (glutei) and armpit (axillae), and so on. There is additionally extreme loss of fat tissue (muscle versus fat) from typical regions of fat stores like bum and thighs. The burdened are frequently touchy, fractious, and ravenously eager. Marasmus is commonly known as the progressive squandering endlessly of the body because of extreme lack of healthy sustenance or insufficient assimilation of food. Marasmus is a type of serious protein insufficiency and is one of the types of protein-vitality glitch (PEM). It is an extreme type of hunger brought about by insufficient admission of proteins and calories

Monday, July 20, 2020

Psychomotor Retardation in Bipolar Disorder

Psychomotor Retardation in Bipolar Disorder Bipolar Disorder Symptoms Depression Print Psychomotor Retardation in Bipolar Disorder By Marcia Purse Marcia Purse is a mental health writer and bipolar disorder advocate who brings strong research skills and personal experiences to her writing. Learn about our editorial policy Marcia Purse Medically reviewed by Medically reviewed by Steven Gans, MD on January 09, 2020 Steven Gans, MD is board-certified in psychiatry and is an active supervisor, teacher, and mentor at Massachusetts General Hospital. Learn about our Medical Review Board Steven Gans, MD on January 09, 2020 Bipolar Disorder Overview Symptoms & Diagnosis Causes Treatment Living With In Children Your Rights Caiaimage / Rafal Rodzoch / Getty Images Experiencing psychomotor retardation feels as if a dial has been turned to put you on slow speed. The resulting effects include sluggish or diminished body movements, usually accompanied by a similar slowing of your thought processes. The physical manifestations vary in scope and severity but are usually obvious to both loved ones and healthcare professionals. Psychomotor retardation occurs commonly during depressive episodes of bipolar disorder as well as major depressive disorder. In these circumstances, the effects are usually temporary and recede as the depression lifts.?? The development of psychomotor retardation does not always signal a depressive episode. Other situations and conditionsâ€"such as drug side effects and certain  medical diseasesâ€"can also trigger reduced or slow physical and mental activity.??   Signs and Symptoms of Psychomotor Retardation People with psychomotor retardation move, speak, react, and usually think more slowly than normal. This can manifest in a variety of ways, largely depending on the severity of the impairment. An affected persons speech is noticeably slow and may be punctuated by long pauses or losing the train of thought. Delayed responsiveness and difficulty following another persons conversation are also common. Complex mental processesâ€"such as calculating a tip or mapping out directionsâ€"take longer to accomplish.?? Common examples of physical manifestations of psychomotor retardation include:   Sluggishness when walking or changing positions, such as getting up from a chairSlumped postureSpeaking in a soft, monotonous voiceStaring into space and reduced eye contactDiminished facility with fine motor tasks, such as writing, using scissors, and tying shoelaces  Impaired ability to perform tasks requiring eye-hand coordination, such as catching a ball, shaving, and applying makeupSlow reaction time, such as when reaching for a falling object A person with severe psychomotor retardation may appear catatonic or nearly catatonic. In this state, the person does not respond to others or the environment and is typically virtually motionless. Catatonia represents a medical emergency, as it can become life-threatening. Causes of Slowed Physical and Mental Activity Several disorders and conditions can cause slowed mental and physical activity. This occurs most frequently in people experiencing a depressive episode due to major depression or bipolar disorder. The degree of physical and mental blunting often correlates to the severity of the depressive episode. Other psychiatric disorders sometimes associated with psychomotor retardation include: Schizophrenia  spectrum disordersOther depressive disorders  Obsessive-compulsive disorderPost-traumatic stress disorderSubstance abuse       Nervous systems diseases and other conditions that might cause blunted or slow physical and mental activity include: DementiaMedication side effects, especially psychiatric medicines  HypothyroidismParkinsons disease  and related conditionsCertain genetic conditions, such as Huntingtons disease Treating Psychomotor Retardation Reviewing current medications is one of the first steps in addressing psychomotor retardation. This is important to determine whether medication side effects might be triggering the physical and mental slowness. Certain anti-anxiety  and antipsychotic medications commonly prescribed for bipolar disorder are possible culprits. If other causes have been ruled out, medication is typically the first line of treatment for people experiencing psychomotor retardation associated with a depressive episode.?? The choice of medication or a combination of medicines is made on an individual basis. Current and past medications and an individuals response to them are important considerations in drug treatment decisions. Common medication options for people with bipolar disorder experiencing a depressive episode include Abilify (aripiprazone), Depakote (valproic acid), Lamictal (lamotrigine), Latuda (lurasidone), lithium, Seroquel (quetiapine), and Zyprexa (olanzapine), among others.??     With severe depression, especially if accompanied by catatonia, loss of touch with reality, or a high risk of suicide, electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) may be an option. While it is one of the fastest ways to treat bipolar depression, ECT is generally undertaken only if other treatment options fail.?? Once the right combination of medications is found, psychotherapy  and other non-medical therapies may be used in addition to medication to support long-term mood stabilization. The 9 Best Online Therapy Programs

Thursday, May 21, 2020

The Defination Of The Fiance Market Finance Essay - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 12 Words: 3586 Downloads: 10 Date added: 2017/06/26 Category Finance Essay Type Research paper Did you like this example? Introduction Accounting ratio (finance ratio) is related to two numeric values which is taken from financial statement. This ratio is mainly use for accounting; it can be use in many ratios. With this, we can evaluate overall financial conditions. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "The Defination Of The Fiance Market Finance Essay" essay for you Create order Accounting ratio is used by managers, current and potential shareholders and creditors. The strength and weakness of a company can be comparing by using accounting ratio through security analysts. If a company are transact in financial market, the market price of the share is used in some financial statement. Accounting ratio can be express in decimal value and also in value of percent. For an example, 0.10 and 0.1%.Accounting ratio can specify much kind of aspects of a business and it is the whole part of the financial statement. Accounting ratio have its own categories according to the financial aspect of a business which the ratio measure. Here are the five different categories for measuring five various aspect of business performance. First is the profitability of company, which is to measure by accounting ratio. There is various type of calculation in profitability of company. The seven types are Gross profit markup, Gross profit margin, and Operating profit margin on sales, Pro fit margin on sales, basic earning power, return on total assets and return on common equity. (a) Gross profit markup (%) = x100 Where cost of goods sold = opening stock + purchases closing stock (b) Gross profit margin (%) = x100 Where net sales = sales return inwards (c) Operating profit margin (%) = x100 (d) Profit margin on sales (%) = x100 (e) Basic earning power BEP) = x100 Where total assets = fixed assets + current assets (f) Return on total assets (ROA) = x 100 =ÃÆ'Æ’-100 (g) Return of common equity (ROE) = x100 ==ÃÆ'Æ’-100 Second aspect is the liquidity of company. There are two types in this aspect. Both types are current ratio/working capital ratio and liquid ratio/quick ratio/acid-test ratio. (a) Current ratio/ working capital ratio = (b) Liquid ratio/ quick ratio/ acid-test ratio = Third aspect is asset management of company, there is six types of calculation measurement. The six are Asset management of company, fixed assets turnover, total assets turnover, debtor ratio, debtor payment period and day sales outstanding. (a) Inventory turnover or stock turnover = or (b) Fixed assets turnover = _______Net sales________ Fixed assets net book value Where net sales = sales return inwards (c) Total assets turnover = Where net sales = sales return inwards And total assets = fixed assets + current assets (d) Debtor ratio = (e) Debtor payment period = Debtor ratio ÃÆ'Æ’- 365 days / 52 weeks / 12 weeks (f) Days sales outstanding (DSO) = Fourth is debts management and capital gearing company. The types are debts ratio, capital gearing ratio, debts equity ratio, times interest earned, creditor ratio and creditor payment period. (a) Debts ratio / total debts to total assets ratio = (b) Capital gearing ratio = Prior charge debts capital Total capital = preference share capital + debenture + loan stock + loan (Ordinary share capital + preference share capital + reserves + long-term liabilities) Or (fixed assets + current assets current liabilities) (c) Debts equity ratio = (d) Times interest earned / interest cover = (e) Creditor ratio =____Creditor___ Credit purchase (f) Creditor payment period = creditor ratio ÃÆ'Æ’- 365 days / 52 weeks / 12 months (in days / week / months) =(In days/weeks/months) =ÃÆ'Æ’- 365 days / 52 weeks/12 months The last aspect is market value of investment to ordinary shareholders. The types of these aspects are earning per share, earning ratio, dividend over, earning yield, dividend yield, cash flow ratio and book value ratio (a) Earning per share = = (b) Price / Earning ratio = Market price per ordinary share Earnings per share (c) Dividend cover = _______Earning per share______ Net ordinary dividend per share Or = Profit after interest, after taxation, after preference dividend after minority interest Net ordinary dividend (d) Earning yield = = (e) Dividend yield = (f) Price / cash flow ratio = (g) Market price / book value ratio = == Accounting ratio even allows comparing between companies and industries. Generally, ratio has no meaning but the ratio of the firm is different and dissimilar industries and which is also facing different risk and competitions. We can also compare accounting ratio for business measurement with using inter-temporal and inter-firm. Inter-temporal can show the changes of price which can make comparison difficult unless if the adjustments are made. Impacts of changes in technology on the amount of assets, like the return and the future market. Impacts of a changing environment base on result which refers in accounting information. Potential effects of differences in accounting policies on reported resulted. Problems come with establishing with a ordinary base to equate other years. Inter-firm can elaborate the selection of industry norms and the benefits. Various firms having various financial and business risk profile and of the analysis. Various firms utilize various accounting polic ies. Inter-firm shows the impacts the size of the business and its comparators is unsafe, structure and returns. Impact of various environments on result, such as various countries / home-based versus multination multinational firms. GAMUDA BERHAD Gamuda berhad is one of the Malaysias major investments holding group and company which related to civil engineerings construction. This company is operating of three kinds of sectors: 1) Engineering and constructions which is related of buildings and constructions, such as buildings, railways, dams, highways and other constructions which is engaged to constructions. 2) Property development and club operations- which is related to the development of commercial properties, residential and club operations. 3) Water and expressway concessions- which related to the management and tolling of the highway operations and of the management of water supply. Gamuda is operates mainly in Malaysia and also operates in other countries such as Vietnam, Bahrain, Taiwan, Qatar and more. Gamudas headquater is located at Selangor Darul Ehsan and its about 1232 are employed by the management to work. Gamudas milestone 1976- The company of named Gamuda Berhad was created. 1992- 10/8/1992 Gamuda Berhad was list into the main board of the Kuala Lumpur stock exchange 1993- Gamuda was having partnership with Kesas sdn bhd, with a signed of conssesion agreement to undertake the management, construction, maintenance and operations of the Shah Alam Expressway for the period of nine months and twenty eight years. 1994- Gamuda own its very first land bank by buying the land of Ladang Bukit Kemuning located in Shah Alam. This shows that Gamuda has made an entry into property development. 1996- Gamuda signed a new concessions agreement with the Federal government through Lingkaran Trans Kota Holdings Berhad to make Lebuhraya Damansara Puchong as a private ownership. 2000- Gamuda was voted as the Best Asian Construction Company by the Euromoney magazine 2001- During November, Gamuda signed with National Highways Authority of India a concessions agreement to undertake the highways projects i n West Bengal, India 2002- During October, gamuda has signed with New Asia Construction Development Corporation of Taiwan and Kaohsiung Rapit Transit Corporation a joint agreement to undertake Kaohsiung Rapit Transit project in Taiwan 2004- The government of Malaysia has sent a letter to MMC-Gamuda to inform that joint venture that the government of Malaysia has made a decision that to postpone the implementation of the 2T to a day to be informed. 2006- Gamuda has won the award for new Sitra Causeway Bridges project in the country of Bahrain. 2010- During march, Gamuda Berhad acquires 60% of stake in Sai Gon Thuong Tin Tan Tang to bring up Celadon city in the city of Ho Chi Minh, Vietnam. WCT WCT is one of the Malaysias companies which are famous and related to the provision of engineering services. This company is operating of three kinds of sectors: 1) Civil engineering work: its specialized in highway constructions, earthworks and also related infrastructure works. 2) Property development: Development of commercial properties and of residential 3) Property investments: Holding the assets for the rental income and capital appreciations. WCT Milestone 1981- This company was found and named as WCT Earthwork and Buildings Contractors Sdn Bhd 1993- WCT has completed the first successful project of infrastructure- Selangor Turf Club, Sungai Besi, Malaysia 1997- Launched of very first property sales- Integrate Township Bandar Bukit Tinggi, Klang, Malaysia 2001- Receive award of Malaysia Construction Industries Excellence Award for special projects categories- Sepang F1 Circuit 2002- Awarded for builder of the year 2005- WCT has achieved very good property sales for RM 2.0 Billion 2008- WCT Land Berhad had been privatized for 100% owned subsidiary All the information has gather via internet. Ratio with formula (Profitability of Company) WCT Berhad Gamuda Berhad Gross Profit markup (%) = ÃÆ'Æ’- 100 x100 =8.23% Gross profit = 2455143000 1580125000 363348000 8595000 19973000 19260000 40866000 =422976000 Cost of the good sales = 1580125000 + 363348000 + 8595000 + 19973000 + 19260000 + 40866000 =2032167000 ÃÆ'Æ’- 100 = 20.81% Gross profit margin (%) = ÃÆ'Æ’- 100 x100 = 7.60% Gross profit = 2455143000 1580125000 363348000 8595000 19973000 19260000 40866000 =422976000 Net sales value = 2455143000 0 =2455143000 ÃÆ'Æ’- 100 = 17.23% Operating profit margin on sales (%) = ÃÆ'Æ’-100 x100 =5.23% ÃÆ'Æ’- 100 = 10.58% Profit margin on sales (%) = ÃÆ'Æ’-100 x100 =3.15% ÃÆ'Æ’- 100 = 11.43% Basic earning power(BEP)= ÃÆ'Æ’- 100 1 925 297 000+2 553 187 000= 4 478 484 000 x100 =5.45% Total assets = 2347737000 + 4203173000 =6550910000 ÃÆ'Æ’- 100 = 3.97% Return on Total assets= ÃÆ'Ɔ™- 100 x100 =3.28% Total assets = 2347737000 + 4203173000 =6550910000 ÃÆ'Æ’- 100 = 4.28% Return on common equity= ÃÆ'Æ’-100 388,856+369,256+492,134=1,250,246 x100 =11.77% ÃÆ'Æ’- 100 = 8.62% Ratio with Formula (Liquidity of Company) WCT Berhad Gamuda Berhad Current Ratio= =1.41:1 = 2.18 : 1 Acid-test ratio= 2,553,187-113,709=2,439,478 =1.36:1 = 2.14 : 1 Ratio with Formula ( Assets Management of Company) WCT Berhad Gamuda Berhad Inventory Turnover = or =37.92times Cost of sales = 1580125000 + 363348000 + 8595000 + 19973000 + 19260000 + 40866000 =2032167000 = 25.49 times Total Assets Turnover= =1.04times = 0.37 times Debtor Ratio= x100 =0.32:1 = 0.65 : 1 Days sales outstanding= =116.8 OR 0.65365days =237.25days Ratio with Formula (Debts management of company) WCT Berhad Gamuda Berhad Debts ratio= 1,183,958+1,807,550=2,991,508 =0.67:1 Total assets = 2347737000 + 4203173000 =6550910000 Debts equity ratio= =2.39:1 =1:1 Times interest earned or Interest cover= 4.85times =5.93 times Ratio with Formula (Market value of investment to stockholder of company) WCT Berhad Gamuda Berhad Earnings per share= = 388856/0.5=777 712 =RM0.19pershare =RM0.14 Price earnings ratio= OR =13.68times =22.86 times Earnings yield= = x100 =9.74% =5.83% Market price per book value ratio= = x100 =1.61:1 = = 1.99 : 1 Profitability of company Gross profit markup and gross profit margin The highest Gross profit markup and gross profit margin has been earned by Gamuda company compare to WCT for Gamuda has earned more gross profit. Operating profit margin on sales and profit margin on sales Gamuda has earned more than WCT in the operating profit on sales but in profit margin on sales gamuda has more sales than WCT. Basic earning power return on total assets and return on common equity Gamuda has more earning power than WCT, but WCT has more return on total assets and of return on common equity than Gamuda. Liquidity of company Current Ratio Gamuda has more high current ratio than WCT, if the current ratio increase than the average of the industry, large amount of current asset can be used to finance its current liabilities. Acid test ratio Gamuda has the higher acid test ratio than WCT. Asset management of company Inventory turnover of company WCT has higher inventory turnover of company compare to Gamuda. The higher invertory turnover indicates a fast stock turnover whereas the the lower inventory turnover where the goods purchased keep in store are slowly take out. Total asset turnover WCT has higher total asset turnover compare to Gamuda. The higher asset turnover indicates higher sales generate from the asset. Whereas the lower asset turnover indicates lower sales generate from the asset. Debtor ratio day sales outstanding Gamuda has higher debtor ratio day sales outstanding compare to WCT. The higher debtor ratio indicate that company bringing to shortage of money for paying back liabilities and facing short-term finance problem. Whereas the lower debtor ratio that company fast to collect money from the debtors. Debtor ratio Gamuda has more debtor ratio compare to WCT. The higher debts ratio indicate that company has a heavy debts burden with a large amount of debts and bearing high interest cost. Debts equity ratio WCT has higher debts equity ratio than gamuda. Debts equity ratio is used to measure the proportion of company debts in relation to its common equity. Times interst earned Gamuda has higher time interest earned than WCT. High capital gearing ratio of ÃÆ' ¢Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ã‚ ¬Ãƒâ€šÃ‚ º 0.5:1, high debts ratio and high debts equity ratio. Market value of investment to ordinary shareholder Earnings per share WCT has higher market value of investment of ordinary shareholder then Gamuda. Higher earnings per share indicates high rate of growth to high profit. Price earnings ratio Gamuda has higher price earnings ratio than WCT. Higher earnings ratio indicates that earnings per share are very low in relation to the share market. Earning yield WCT has higher earning yield compare to gamuda. Indicating high net income return to common stockholders. Market price per book value Gamuda has higher market price per book value than WCT. Market price indicating the share market price rises too high above its real assets value. Conclusion Accounting ratio is used by managers, current and potential shareholders and creditors. The strength and weakness of a company can be comparing by using accounting ratio through security analysts. If a company are transact in financial market, the market price of the share is used in some financial statement. Accounting ratio can be express in decimal value and also in value of percent. For an example, 0.10 and 0.1%.Accounting ratio can specify much kind of aspects of a business and it is the whole part of the financial statement. Question 2 2.1 Definition Todays world it is full about economics. In this economic, especially, the name and term of market which is mean the aggregate of buyers and sellers of some service and transaction between them. There are various dissimilar financial markets. Every single financial market make out with a various types of financial instrument in conditions of its assets backing it. Various financial markets serve various kinds of clients and function in various parts of the country. Financial market also disagree or to say differ from physical assets markets. The reason is because physical asset markets are also called as real asset markets or can be also called as tangible assets to deal with real, tangible and physical asset, for example machinery, food, furniture, computer and other physical assets. Financial markets are set to deal with various kind of financial instrument such as mortgages, bonds, share, notes and other which can claim on real assets as well. Financial markets can also claim on derivative securities or commodities whose values are derived from the changes in the value of the assets. Both physical asset market and financial market can also be run as the future market and spot market. Future market sort to the deal which being purchase and trade for the future delivery at the future day such as three months or eight months into the future whereas spot markets sort to the deal which is being purchase and trade for a spot or immediate delivery within a few days. There are few major financial markets. Money markets Financial markets dealing short-term debt securities, such as certificate of deposits, commercial papers, treasury bills and others which funds are loaned or borrowed for a short period or short-term. Generally the securities of money markets are very safe and this can ensure that the investment is very safe. This also returns a relatively low interest rate that is, most appropriate for a short-term time. Capital markets This is the financial markets which is dealing with shares or stocks and long-term debts which the cash are loaned and borrowed for a very long periods of a year or more. Mortgage markets This is the financial markets which are deal with loans on commercial, farmland, residential and others. Consumer credit markets This financial marketing which is dealing with loan on educations and vacations as well as loans for autos and appliances. Primary markets Primary market is called as the new issue market for it is the market that issuing securities. Many company, have enter the primary market to raise funds and money from the public to expand their business. The securities can be buy from the shareholders directly. Secondary markets This financial markets in which already have outstanding securities or the financial assets and stocks are traded among the investors after the issued corporations. Initial public offering (IPO) markets This financial market which in firm or corporation on go public by some offering securities or to say share to the public for the earliest time. Private market This financial market which is privately working out on financial transaction and directly between the two parties without going to consumers and public which the transaction may structure in any manner which appeals between the two parties. 2.2 Three different ways for transferring capital or fund from savers to borrowers in the financial markets There are three types of ways which the capital or fund can be transact between savers and borrowers. a) Direct transfer from savers to borrowers: When a corporations issues and bonds directly to the savers without getting through of any financial institution so that the borrower delivers its securities to the saver who in return give back money. With this, capital is transferred from savers to borrowers. b) Indirect transfer from savers to borrowers through investment banking house: It happens when theres an investment bank notes the issuance of the securities of corporations where the investment bank will serve as a centre man to facilitate the issuance of the securities of corporations by buying the securities of corporation then later on resell it back to the savers so that the fund who paid by the savers for buying of corporation which took the role as borrowers. Then , the securities of the corporations and the money of the savers pass would pass through the investment banking house from savers to the corporations. As the diagram below. c) Indirect transfer from savers to borrowers through a financial intermediary: It would happen when financial intermediaries such as mutual fund have money from the saver by issuing of its own securities or savers get issued of certificate of deposit. Later, the financial intermediate utilizes the fund which is collected from the savers to buy and hold of the other corporations securities as investment. As in this case, the fund is transferred to financial intermediary from the savers when the saver settles his/her money to financial intermediary in exchange for securities issued by the financial intermediary. Later, financial intermediary will move on forward about transferring this fund to the other corporation by paying cash out of the fund to buy securities of other corporations. Most of the saver will like to hold the certificate of deposit and the financial intermediarys securities, the reason why is, the certificate of deposit are very safe and more liquid than loans and mortgages. With this, financial intermediaries will increase greatly of the effici ency of money and capital markets. This has shown in the diagram below. 2.3 Investment banking house and various financial intermediaries which pay role in the fund transfer from savers to borrowers: 2.3.1 Investment banking house This is an organization which is form to distribute the new and latest issues of business Corporations securities to help corporation have fund for financing. 2.3.2 Financial intermediaries These specialized financial facilitate the transaction of funds from the savers to borrowers. Generally the financial intermediaries are very large, they will gain economies of scale in analyzing the worthiness and value of potential borrowers, even in processing and collecting loans or even helping individual savers to alter their fund investments. Here are the following major financial intermediaries. a) Commercial banks Historically, commercial banks were the big institution that managed and handled checking accounts. Federal Reserve System is one which expanded or contracted the money supply, but for nowadays commercial banks are providing a more ever-widening range of service including insurance. Commercial bank are very dissimilar from investment bank, the reason is because commercial banks borrowed out money to lenders whereas investment banks helps Business Corporation to extend capitals. b) Savings and loan associations They have served the individual savers and commercial mortgage lenders where they receive money from the small savers and then borrowed it out to the house buyers and also to the other type of lenders. The most significant economic process of saving is to make liquidity in capital market. c) Mutual saving funds These all are same for saving and for the loan associations which receive savings from individuals and then borrowed out money for a long-term basis to house buyers and consumers. d) Credit unions These are very cooperative organizations whose member to be having a similar bond so that unions collect savings from members and then lend it to other members who really needs the fund to finance their purchase, house mortgage and others. Credit unions would be the cheapest source of funds available to individual lenders. e) Pension funds Pension funds are retirements plan which is funded by the corporations or government for their workers is rewarded by the trust department of commercial banks or it can be done by some life insurance companies. Pension funds invest in mortgages, real estate and others. f) Life insurance companies These companies collect savings through annual premiums and then invest all these funds in physical assets and make payments to the beneficiaries of the insured parties. Life insurance companies have offered various types of tax-deferred saving plans specially created to give benefits to participant when they come at the age of retirement. g) Mutual funds For these, the funds should collected from the savers and then utilities the funds to buy stocks, short-term debt instrument and other issued by the business units. They achieve economics of scale in analyzing of securities, buying and selling of securities. Various mutual funds are made to meet the objectives of various kinds of savers. Still, there are bond fund for who those desire of safety, stock funds for those who are really willing to accept the risk in the hope for large and higher returns and other funds to be used as interest bearing checking accounts. There are various mutual funds with various purposes.

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Energy Resource Natural Gas and Solar Energy Essay

My two topics that I will be talking about are Natural Gas and Solar Energy. Natural gas is a nonrenewable resource and pretty soon we are going to have to learn how to do without it. Solar energy will always be around. It’s not very major now but in a few years I’m sure it will be. Natural gas is a mixture of Hydrocarbon gases that form with a petroleum deposit. A hydrocarbon is a compound that’s mostly made up of Hydrogen and Carbon. Natural gas is methane together with some of ethane, propane, butane, and other gases, Methane is a potent greenhouse gas, and Ethane is colorless and odorless. Natural gas is used as fuel and in the making of organic compounds. Natural gas is also highly flammable. (The American Heritage Dictionary, 2009)†¦show more content†¦There are so many ways that we use natural gas. (, 2011) Natural gas is made up of just the two elements, Carbon and Hydrogen. All of the natural gas we use today began as microscopic plants and animals living in the ocean. As they become buried ever deeper, heat and pressure begin to rise. Natural gas deposits migrated until they were caught under impermeable layers of rock or clay, where they were trapped. (â€Å"Natural gas and,† 2013) Natural gas is made into energy when CPS Energy operates 14 gas units to complement its energy generation efforts with coal, nuclear and renewable energy. The turbines suck in air, mix it with the fuel and ignite a fireball. The hot gases from the fireball impact the blades of the turbine to cause motion, creating mechanical energy. The generator converts the mechanical energy into electricity before it is transmitted for customer use. (CPS Energy, 2013) The importance of natural gas is to replace the role of oil in the economy. Natural gas is good for the US because it can produce natural gas domestically. It has plenty of energy for use in people’s homes and in industry. It will help the US economy cope with the depletion of peak oil production. 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The Productivity of Canada Free Essays

Canada†s productivity is not in really good shape now. Among its G-7 partners (Britain, Japan, Germany, France, Italy and the U. S. We will write a custom essay sample on The Productivity of Canada or any similar topic only for you Order Now ) , it has the lowest rate of growth in economic productivity over the past 25 years while it ranked second in productivity only to the U. S. two decades ago. What was the problem? Why was the situation getting worse and worse? While the problem seems to be getting more serious as the new millennium approaches, Jean Chretien, the Prime Minister, and Paul Martin, the Finance Minster, have played down the productivity issue, saying there is no clear-cut evidence that it is a significant problem. In fact, the high income tax rate compared to the U. S. causes lower salary for those highly skilled workers, which leads to their departure for better pay and more opportunities in the U. S. Also, the Canadian federal government spends too much money on themselves such as building political empires and providing services that duplicate those delivered by other provincial or municipal governments. Besides, Canada has a poor performance particularly in areas related to technology and communication industries. We certainly need a lot more to be done to improve productivity from various sources. Before we can come up with effective solutions for this controversial issue, we need to know how does productivity affect our economy and the standard of living in our country. Productivity measures the capacity of the economy to increase its output while costs are controlled. As economic efficiency increases, the overall wealth produced by the economy also goes up. It also determines the purchasing power that Canadians have. The greater productivity, the greater the potential for economic growth. With the decrease in productivity, our standard of living may go down as well. Canadians† living standard grew by an average of 3. 1 percent a year from 1961 to 1980. Since then, growth has averaged only 1. 1 percent annually. The major reason for this shutdown can be criticized on slower productivity growth. Lower labour productivity has explained 96% on average of the Canada-U. S. standard of living gap over the last decade. The atrophy of Canada†s productivity causes damages to the country†s living standard. Stronger productivity growth is essential for higher living standards in a country. One possible solution is tax cut, particularly on income tax. High tax rates hurt Canada in many different ways. Most of the Canadian companies cannot afford to hire an American executive to come north because the U. S. wage rates are significantly higher and the tax rate is different. If they do so, they should expect to pay an American executive the double salary compare to the outgoing Canadian executive earned. In that case, it would be too expensive. Although larger companies can probably afford it, while some smaller companies can†t afford to bring in talent that they need to expand their business. Moreover, the growing tax gap makes the situation even worse. This is also one of the reasons why Canada†s poor economy performance during recent years. Also, the Canadian dollar is weaker than the U. S. dollar, therefore income tax rate turns out to be around 50% for top earners compared to Canada with about 35% in the U. S. The other problem with over taxation is, when governments have too much of our money by collecting tax, which is in the case of Canada, the federal government spend too much on themselves, on building political empires and providing services that duplicate those delivered by other provincial or municipal governments. If taxpayers have this money left over to spend, they will probably either spend it or invest which will have a positive impact on our economy. But one exceptional case is high-tech industries in Montreal. Tax credits those companies, which allure them to invest more money. Eventually, the government provides up to $15,000 for new jobs in tax credits for each employee†s annual salary in future ten years. Those subsidies convinced Illinois-based Motorola to locate a new software center in Montreal. However, the critics argued that the government is buying jobs by using other taxpayer†s money and causing higher taxes for others. But in general, higher tax rate in Canada is a non-questionable fact. Another improvement that should be made is to put more money on education and provide a stable and attractive working environment for highly trained graduates. The loss of these highly trained graduates, estimated in the thousands annually to the U. S. The more opportunities, higher salaries and lower taxes are the main reason to draw their attention. Besides, there are not enough well trained and highly educated people to teach at universities and specialized schools, skilled Canadians who leave because of better pay and more job opportunities elsewhere. Besides, numbers of Canadians are willing to study in the U. S every year. In 1997, 23,000 of them enrolled in American colleges and universities. But there were only 18,000 Canadians enrolled in U. S. universities about 10 years ago. This number has been increased over the past decade and it certainly is going to increase if we don†t do anything about it. Another thing is, the American companies spend large amounts of money on re-training and development on executives. The average company spent about $10 million on both internal and external executive development in 1998. Especially when technology is becoming more and more involving business, the ability to get up to date information and knowledge is the key to success. In a recent survey that is done by Business Week, the best in management education, ranked according to this survey. U. S. has 17 universities in the top 20 for non-degree study. Although this was not an official ranking, it still shows that the U. S has most of the top business schools in the world, such as Harvard, Michigan, and Pennsylvania. That†s also why many students around the world, not just Canadians, like to go to those universities, because they can have a better education and a brighter future. Technology is crucial for productivity too, since Canada has done a poor job in technology and to support those technological talents. Just like Anand Bahl and Kim Cameron, they decided to be part of high-tech talent to the U. S and they sold their privately owned software company, Zoomit Corp. of Toronto, to Microsoft. Anand Bahl and Kim Cameron actually didn†t look for a buyer; somewhat Microsoft approached them as they found their company has potential in market. Anand Bahl and Kim Cameron created a software program, which from the e-mail system called the â€Å"meta-directory† which allows companies to integrate and manage a variety of related computer files, images and applications from different suppliers. They couldn†t get any finance help in Canada and not many people could understand the technology and expected their company to get beaten by a bigger player and wiped out. In fact, their product works and even Microsoft hire them along with 11 of 30 Zoomit†s employees to work on integrating meta-directory software into Windows 2000. They were very happy to be accepted from the world†s largest and most powerful firm because they had such a struggle to try to prove their product. They criticized the attitude that they encountered in Canada which Canadian companies assumed the product wasn†t good enough and they forced to focus on the U. S. which right now about 90% of their sales revenue come from large American companies. The comment that they gave was Canada has world class programming talent, but they have to have a chance and somehow recognize by others, and talent is one of the few things Canada will have left if we let this situation gets worse. In the case of Ford Canada, they have increased the wages for the workers because they are doing great business. But some economists worry that the raise of wages will lead to an increase in the unit price of cars and trucks, which is unlikely the case. In fact, the increase in Ford†s hourly labour cost will certainly lag behind the ongoing growth of productivity. Productivity in auto assembly grew 80% between 1991 and the first quarter of 1999, almost 10 times as fast as the total economy. In general, productivity in car industry has been increased 20% since 1991 . The amazing thing is that auto assembly average productivity even exceeds the level in the U. S. According to the bible of automotive productivity studies, it takes about 25 hours of labour to assemble a vehicle in Canada, which is 10% less than in the U. S. Moreover, this superb productivity performance produced 34,000 new jobs in the industry since 1992. The key for their success is they put huge investment in fixed capital that have been made by the auto assemblers and their parts suppliers. They are investing more than $4 billion on new equipment every year. As a result so far, new equipment with new technology makes greater productivity and better quality. From what has been mentioned above, the fact that Canada†s productivity needs to be improved, and the government should put more effort on it. Canada must solve the productivity problem through massive tax cuts and increase budgets on both education and technology development or continue to lose talents to the U. S. while we†ll have poorer productivity and competition in the market. How to cite The Productivity of Canada, Essay examples

Sunday, April 26, 2020

The natural resource base of a country is fundamental to any explanation of its level of national economic development Essay Example

The natural resource base of a country is fundamental to any explanation of its level of national economic development Essay In this essay I aim to show the true importance of natural resource to the economic growth of a country. I will be discussing Japans and Canadas economic situation as well as comparing it to Saudi Arabia in relation to the availability of natural resources. Indicators such as GNP per capita, Literacy rates, and the countries exports and imports will be studied to help suggest if a natural resource base is fundamental to national economic development of a county. Natural resources are a vital part in the development of the Worlds economy. There is lack of theory in terms of generalising about the relationship between resources and development. Japan is a good example. As explained Japan is a very rich economic country. Manufacturing is its strength but it has few natural resources. The countries successful economy is based on the export of high quality consumer goods developed with the latest technologies for example Toyota, Sony, Fujifilm and Panasonic are famous across the globe. One common pattern is for Japanese companies to import raw materials and then process them to make finished products, which are sold domestically or exported. In an often cited statement 1 (e.g. Cairns, 1994, p 782) Erich Zimmerman wrote resources are not; they become. Meaning that natural resources have no value until labour and capital is applied. Japan has one of the largest export based economies. Japan is 5th in the world for largest export of goods 2 $538.8 b illion (2004 est). In reference to table 1 it can be seen that machinery is Japans biggest export. We will write a custom essay sample on The natural resource base of a country is fundamental to any explanation of its level of national economic development specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on The natural resource base of a country is fundamental to any explanation of its level of national economic development specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on The natural resource base of a country is fundamental to any explanation of its level of national economic development specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer Japan relies heavily on other countries for resources. Japans main agricultural product is rice, and most rice eaten in Japan is home-grown. Since Japan has little arable land compared to its population, it cannot grow enough wheat, soybeans, or other major crops to feed all its citizens. In fact, Japan has one of the lowest rates of food self-sufficiency of all industrialized countries. 5 Only 15% of Japans land is suitable for cultivation. This means it has to import a high percentage of its food from abroad. Japan is the largest market for US exports. Japan has had to build its enormous industrial output and high standard of living on a very low natural resource base. Industry, the most important sector of the economy, is heavily dependent on imported raw materials and fuels. Mostly in terms of fossil fuels, particularly oil. It imports 90% of its oil. Due to the fact that In Japan they supply less that 1% of countries demand. Japan has more oil refining than oil production, and more oil consumption than oil refining. Looking at Table 2 it is notable that Japan is also very short on metal and mineral resources. With Machinery and Mineral fuels being one of the major imports. Japans imports of goods is to the value of $401.8 billion. Meaning Japan is making money from developing the imported primary material then processing these resources to export the manufactured goods. Despite Japan having a very poor resource base it is the 3rd largest economy in the world after USA and China. It has huge amounts of economic power, and its average income levels and standard of living are among the highest in the world.6 Japan GNP per Capita is $29,400 (2004 est.) 99% of the population are literate. 7For 3 decades economic growth has been spectacular 10% average in 1960s, 5% in the 70s and in 1980 4% growth. It is world leading in high technology, industry and has a strong work ethic. Industry is the most important sector of economy. Only 6% of the labour force engage in agriculture while 70% of the labour force, are in the service sector. Japan is among worlds largest and technologically advanced producers of motor vehicles, electronic equipment, machine tools, steel and nonferrous metals, ships, chemicals, textiles, processed foods. Japan is a prime example of that a natural resource base is not fundamental to a countrys development. Its the ability to use and convert these natural resources for example iron ore into steal. 8Blessed with natural resources. From another perspective, the theory of development says that natural resource base is positive in the terms of the benefits for a country. For example Canada has a rich natural resource base. Its an extremely affluent, high tech industrial society with high standards of living. When looking at indicators Canada can be seen as a well developed country. GNP per capita is at an impressive $31,500. This ranks above Japan. The literacy rate for the population is 98%. 9 It has been said that the countrys high income and high standard of living is that its export of natural resource financed the growth and diversification of its national economy in a very beneficial way (Sheppard Barnes). Iron ore, nickel, and zinc, copper, gold, lead, molybdenum, potash, diamonds, silver, fish, timber, wildlife, coal, petroleum, natural gas and hydropower are the main resources. These natural resources along with skilled labour and capital help to secure solid economical prospects. However Canada does not just export these primary resources, it uses them to produce manufactured goods such as; motor vehicles and parts, industrial machinery, aircraft, telecommunications equipment, chemicals and fertilizers along with its natural resources such as timber.10Canada has a large amount of exports $315.6 billion. It is Ranked 10th in the world.It imports $256.1 billion. Canada mainly imports machinery and equipment, motor vehicles, crude oil and chemicals.11 Canada gains more capita from exporting than importing this is why it is an economically developed country with a GDP of $31,500- exports counting approximately for one third of this. Its exporting of natural resources and manufactured goods, has created a high level of economic development within Canada. This helps show that a good natural resource base is important to economic growth. It has been assumed that possessing natural resources benefits a country. However, experience has shown that for most developing countries possessing natural resources has not made them economically strong. Nowhere, is this more obvious than in the oil industry.12 This trend has been identified the resource curse by Richard Auty (1995). For example Saudi Arabia is the largest exporter of oil in the world. It holds 25% of the worlds oil reserves. It makes more money from exporting petroleum and petroleum products than importing machinery, textiles, foodstuffs, motor vehicles and chemicals, 13its GDP is only $12 000- 40% of this and 90% of its oil earnings. 14Saudi Arabia holds a huge dependence on oil. In the past the demand for oil slowed and pulled oil prices down by more than a 1/3 causing Saudi Arabia economic uncertainty. In comparison although Saudi Arabia has this natural resource base, it fails to develop. Countries like the USA and Canada use technology and capital to exploit the natural resources to produce manufactured goods. Then use trade and exchange to create a profit. It does not use natural resources alone. As stated before this is shown from Canada GNP per capita of $31,500 which is relatively high in comparison to Saudi Arabia with a GNP per capita of $12,000 who just uses solely depends on its exports of oil. Japan a country with resource deficiency has GNP per capita of $29,400 because it gains access through trade and exchange. This shows that economic resource base is not always fundamental to a countries development. In conclusion it can be seen from the countries of Canada, Japan and Saudi Arabia that a natural resource base is not always fundamental to the countrys level of economic development. One of the key issues that have been identified is that it is the access to natural resources through trade and exchange that is important. The use of technology, labour and capital thereafter produces manufactured goods that can then be exported resulting in strong economic growth. Depending on a natural resource alone is not enough to sustain economic development. Sheppard and Barnes (2003) help to summarise to a certain degree that natural resource base is not always fundamental to a countrys level of economic growth 15 It appears that the location of resource deposits is almost irrelevant to where geographically those resources will be used. Not natural resources alone that facilitate growth its right technology, the right culture, and the right markets.